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Category: Animal Behavior & Communication

Chemical Communication: The Language of Pheromones

Chemical Communication: The Language of Pheromones

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The evidence for a genetic basis to behavioural variation is diverse, and much of it, it has to be said, holds little interest for the evolutionary biologist since it emerges from gross disruptions to normal behaviour or other dysfunctional effects (see e.g. van der Steen 1998). To receive a Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences from UC San Diego, all students must complete at least twenty units of upper-division coursework in the Division of Biological Sciences with a grade of C- or better.

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Evolution Of Social System (Monographs in Psychobiology, Vol

Evolution Of Social System (Monographs in Psychobiology, Vol

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Classification of the pet suitability of a species on basis of the current dataset can be done in several ways. In-depth coverage of concepts, methods, and exemplar organisms serves the needs of graduate students and professionals in the field. You are a member of a special science exploration team, which will study a forest that has been seen by few humans. The trait in question, which relates to the unusual feeding behaviour of the fish, is the orientation of the jaw.

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Studies in Animal Behavior - Primary Source Edition

Studies in Animal Behavior - Primary Source Edition

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Acclimatisation will be favoured on cost/benefit grounds if it reduces sufficiently the amount of regulatory effort required to maintain an optimal internal state. A. (1987) Developmental stability of insecticide resistant phenotypes in a blowfly: a result of canalizing natural selection. Acanthocephala (spiny-headed worm) 65, 606 Acarophenox 479 Acclimatised optimum 178, 216 Acetabularia 157–8 Acetylcholine (see also Neurotransmitter) 98, 241 Acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) 434 Action potential 97–9 Action-specific energy (see also Motivation) 26, 170–2 Adaptation 2, 29, 33–5, 63–6 fitness and 63–6 in local populations 61–2 Adaptive complexes 35 Adaptive cost gauging 214, 219 Adoption 525, 526, 622–3 and dilution of risk 526 Adrenalin 98, 124 Aethria carnicauda 257 African bush shrike (Laniarius funebris) 115 African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) 147 African elephant (Loxodonta africana) 558 African grey parrot (Psittacus africanus) 283 African hunting dog (Lycaon pictus) 80, 399–400, 426 Agelenid spider 83, 111 Agelenopsis aperta 83 Aggregative response 385, 404, 416 Aggression 11, 50, 51, 59, 60, 66–7, 70–6, 88, 108, 109, 150, 152–3, 164, 172, 173, 192, 213, 217, 220, 240, 262–3, 273–4, 428, 486, 536, 549, 586, 614 conventional 70–6, 546–55 escalated 70–6, 546–55 redirected 192 AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) 114 Alarm signal 398–402, 404, 543, 565, 582 and difficulty of location 401 and kin selection 400 and predator deterrence 400 Alliance 430, 435, 466, 495, 604, 625–32, 629–30, 633 kinship 626, 633 social contracts and 629–30 and warfare 629–30 Allele, definition of 41 Allometry 492 Alloparental care (see Adoption) Alternative strategies and tactics (see Strategy and Life history strategy) Altricial development 255 Altruism 28, 67–8, 84–6, 227, 400–1, 433, 437, 448–68, 511, 532, 593, 602, 617 allocation of 452 as cultural by-product 602 and producer-scrounger relationships 631 reciprocal (see Reciprocity) and sexual selection 617 and showing off 631–2 Alzheimer’s disease 242 Ambiguous image 137–8 Ambivalence (see Conflict behaviour) American badger (Taxidea taxus) 400 American foul brood (Bacillus larvae) 42 American jacana (Jacana spinosa) 487–8 Ammophila campestris 226 Anachorete 389 Anemone 96, 100 Actinia 100 Metridium 100 nervous systems in 100 Angler fish (Lophius piscatorius) 205 Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga) 37–9 Animal rights 212 Animat (see Robot) Anisogamy 471, 473–6, 531, 605, 633 evolution of 474–5 and parental investment 475–6 and reproductive rate 475, 517 Anole (Anolis carolinensis) 150 Anosmia 148, 344 Anthropomorphism 195, 212, 214, 218, 219, 336, 542, 571, 587 Anti-ambush behaviour 399 Anticipation 176, 192, 376–7 Anti-predator behaviour 250, 357, 386–404, 407–16, 468 Antisymmetry 250, 510 Antlers 56, 148, 395, 503, 548 Anurogryllus arboreus 559 Anxiety 243 Aposematism 274, 388, 397, 399, 570 and gregariousness 397 and kinship 397 Apostatic selection 383 Appetitive behaviour 172 Arachnocampa luminosa 257 Area-restricted searching 385–6, 404 Arms race, evolutionary 81–2, 244, 245, 357, 403–4, 468, 501, 527, 542–3, 550, 571, 586, 587 Army ant (Eciton burchelli and E. hamatum) 437–8 Arousal 108 Arrhythmic behaviour 48–9, 159 Artefacts 590, 593 Artificial selection 45, 57–61, 240, 334, 499–500, 506 Aschoff’s rule 157 Asexual reproduction 82, 313, 470–3 Assessment 431, 546–55, 569 cost of 556 and payoff asymmetries 547, 550–1, 553–5 probing 550, 556 and resource holding potential (RHP) asymmetries 546–50, 553–5 and status-limited cues 546 and uncorrelated asymmetries 547, 552–3 Association centre 196 Associative learning (see Learning) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) 256–7, 342 Attention 58, 98, 208, 260, 275–8, 295, 341, 380–1, 385, 389, 571 in associative learning 275–8, 341 deficit 260 and search images 385 Attractiveness (in humans) 607–15 and altruism 602, 617 and ambitiousness 612 and fat 609 and health 607–9 and ovulation 609–10 and provisioning capacity 611–12 and symmetry 608–9, 610, 614 and youthfulness 607–9 Audiogenic seizure 51 Autoimmune response 508, 511 Automaton (see also Robot) 167, 226 Automimicry 397 Autonomic fear response (see Conflict behaviour) Autoshaping (see also Operant conditioning) 279–80 Autotomy 392 Awareness (see Consciousness and Self-awareness) Baboon 3, 125, 143, 304, 321–2, 431, 486 gelada (Theropithecus gelada) 486 hamadryas (Papio hamadryas) 3, 125 Papio anubis 431 savannah (Papio cynocephalus) 321–2 ‘Babysitting’ 426 Bacteria 143, 345 magnetic sensitivity in 143, 345 Banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) 432 Banded wren (Thryothorus pleurostictus) 539 Bank swallow (Riparia riparia) 524–5 Banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) 539 Barbary dove (Streptopelia risoria) 176, 184–9 Barnacle (Balanus crenatus) 438 Barn owl (Tyto alba) 138, 402 Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) 487, 504–5, 509, 524 Barometric pressure 133, 354 as an altimeter 354 Barred ground dove (Streptopelia striata) 413 Bat 14, 138–40 echolocation in 138–40 Beach hopper (Talitrus and Orchestoidea) 348 Begging 527–9, 530, 543 energetic cost of 530 honesty in 527–9 Behavioural ecology 26, 27–9, 31, 448, 543, 591, 592, 603–4, 632 human behavioural ecology (Darwinian anthropology) 603–4 Behavioural final common path 189 Behavioural priority 167, 168, 190, 191, 195, 208, 214, 217 Behavioural regulation 178 Behavioural repertoire 189, 212, 256–7, 291 Behavioural resilience 212 Behaviourism 2, 29, 207 Behaviour sequence 22, 100, 128–9, 171–2, 184–95, 218 and motivational systems 189–95 predictability of 129 in Siamese fighting fish 129 and the state-space approach 184–9 in a toy elephant 128–9 Best of a bad job (see Strategy) Bet-hedging 324 Bill-pecking response 225 Biogenetic law 39 Biological clock (see also Circadian rhythm, Circannual rhythm and Rhythmic behaviour) 62–3, 154–9 circadian 154–9 circalunar 155 circannual 154–6 circasyzygic (semilunar) 155 circatidal 155 entrainment 154, 159, 165 and imprinting 299 interactions between 157 master 157–8 physiological bases of 157–8 regulation of 158–9 Bird of paradise 3, 4, 23, 290, 492 blue (Paradisaea rudolphi) 3 Bitterling (Rhodeus sericus) 500 Black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) 451–2 Blackbird 3, 44, 115, 152, 293, 296, 335, 399 albino 44 European (Turdus merula) 3, 44, 293, 296, 335 Red-winged (Agelaius phoeniceus) 115, 152 ‘Black box’ approach 26, 167–95, 218, 301 Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) 330–2, 345 Black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus) 116 Black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) 420–1, 539 Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) 323–4, 326, 400 Blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi) 347 Blindsight 207 Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis machrochirus) 89–91 alternative breeding strategies in 89–91 Blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus) 273–5 Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) 367, 384, 394 Bluethroat (Luscinia svecina) 328–9 Blue tit (Parus caeruleus) 294–5, 311–12, 544–5 Bombardier beetle (Brachinus ballistarius) 396 Bonobo (Pan paniscus) 202, 584 Booby (Sula) 37–39 blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) 529 masked (Sula dactylata) 529 Botryllus schlosseri 458, 459 Bowl and doily spider (Frontinella pyramitela) 553–5 Brain 9, 11–13, 103, 104–9, 116–18, 124–5, 248–9, 260 development and behaviour 260 environmental enrichment and development 260 ‘executive’ and ‘emotional’ 248–9 hemispheric dominance in 107 as hypothesis generator 137 imaging 118, 124–5, 208 as onboard computer 9, 136 plasticity in 11–13, 116–17, 118 sex differences in structure 114–15 Breeding season 17–18 Brood parasite 79, 115, 421, 525–6, 530 inter- and intraspecific 525, 530 Mafia effect in 525 Brood patch 146, 153, 520 Brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) 336 Bruce effect 495 Bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) 88, 513, 539 owners and satellites in 88 Burrowing 5, 286 in Ammophila campestris 226 in great golden digger wasps 5, 73–4 Bush cricket (Requena verticalis) 514–15 Caching 116–18, 209, 289, 302 Caenorhabditis elegans 230–2, 236 social versus solitary feeding in 231–2 touch-insensitivity in 230–2 Calculated migration (see also Migration) 320, 322–6 in black-tailed prairie dogs 323–4 within a familiar area 324–6, 336 and long distance migration 322 in mountain gorillas 323, 324 California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi beecheyi) 398 California yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) 387 Calling 51, 561–5 call structure 51 energetic constraints 565 jamming 564–5 ‘leader’ and ‘follower’ 565 species-typical 563 Camouflage 64, 300 Canary (Serinus canaria) 116, 150, 152–3 Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) 283, 424 Carotenoid 503, 506 Carrying capacity 333 Caste 87, 222, 435–8, 448–9 Castration (see Gonadectomy) Cat, domestic (Felis catus) (see also Siamese cat) 136, 236–40, 258–9, 296, 304 weaning conflict in 527–8 Cataglyphis 132, 227, 340, 350 Causal factor 172–89 Central nervous system (see Nervous system) Central pattern generator 122, 125 Centris pallida 88–9 patrollers and interceptors in 88–9 Cephalisation 102, 104, 109, 123 Cephalopod 103 octopus (Octopus vulgaris) 103, 268 squid 97, 103 Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) 40, 263–5, 301 Challenge hypothesis 152 Cheating (see also Deception) 209–10, 397, 424, 465–6, 546–50 social policing of 549–50, 556 Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) 1, 253, 296 Chicken, domestic (Gallus gallus domesticus) 6, 23, 147, 149, 172, 296, 297, 341, 384–5, 424, 507, 567, 570 Child abuse 2, 621–2 and relatedness 621–3 and reproductive value 623 Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) 3, 4, 91, 202, 286, 295–6, 435, 582–5, 630 Chinook salmon (Onchorhynchus tshawytscha) 330 Chlamydomonas 474 Chromatophore 2 Chromosomal abnormality 51 Circadian rhythm (see also Biological clock, Period gene and Rhythmic behaviour) 62–3, 154–9 in flying squirrels 154, 156 thermal stability of 62–3 Circannual rhythm (see also Biological clock and Rhythmic behaviour) 154–6 and hibernation 155 and moult cycle 154 in stonechats 156 Clark’s nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) 116 Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning (see also Learning) 269–78, 289–90, 293, 306 adaptive significance 273–5 blocking and overshadowing 275–8, 341 conditional stimulus control 275 excitatory and inhibitory 271–2 feature-value effect 275 and intelligence 289–90 stimulus-response associations in 269–72 surprise, attention (Rescorla-Wagner theory) and 275–8, 341 transferring stimulus control 275 Cliff swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota) 427, 524–5 Clock-shift experiment 349 Cloudless sulphur butterfly (Phoebis sennae) 329 Clutch size 17, 79 optimal 17, 79 Co-adapted gene complex 253, 510, 511 Coalition (see Alliance) Coal tit (Parus ater) 311–12 Cockroach 101, 103, 140 Periplaneta americana 101, 103 Cocktail party effect 564 Cognition 30, 195–211, 219, 220, 245, 289–90, 336 modularity in 209–10, 603 ‘Cognitive enhancer’ drug 242 Cognitive map 198–201, 289, 336, 576, 580 choosing a novel route 198–201 making a detour 201 Cognitive psychology 207 Collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) 478 Command 15, 125, 165 centre 125, 165 hierarchies of 125, 165 motivational 178 motor 15 Communal roost 425, 499 Communication (see also Signal and Display) 1, 2, 91, 533–86 and anthropomorphism 571 effects of the biotic environment 563–71 components of 533, 535 defining 533–4 and information 541–2 and intelligence 571–86 and intentionality 534, 571–2 effects of the physical environment 558–63 networks 556, 586 Comparative approach 13, 23–4, 112, 165, 474, 501, 503–4, 546 Comparative psychology 26–7, 29, 31, 189, 300–4 Compass 143, 337, 343, 356 backup 143, 349, 354 calibration 143, 352–4, 355 magnetic 339, 345–8, 355 moon 348, 352 polarised light 141, 340, 350, 355 rule of orientation 322 star 345, 351–2, 355 sun 141, 322, 327, 348–51 time compensation in 349–50 Competition 11, 67, 77, 142, 308, 313–18, 331, 379, 406, 426, 466, 492, 511, 525, 606 apparent 376–7, 378 frequency-dependent 77 intrasexual 261, 606, 614 social 11, 67, 142 Competitive ability 163, 316, 318, 431, 434, 488, 490, 548 asymmetry in 529, 546–50 Compound stimulus 277–8, 299, 301 Concentration gradient 342 Concorde fallacy 550 Conditioned heart response 352–3 Conditioning (see Learning, Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning) Confidence 431 Conflict behaviour 191–2, 539, 540 Conflict of interest 244, 527, 532, 618–20, 623–4 and commodity value 466 between parent and offspring 244, 254, 262, 526–30, 633 between the sexes 244, 475, 489–91, 496, 605, 618–20 and sex ratios 480 between territory owners and satellites 446–7 Confusion 391, 399 and flash behaviour 391 Conjugation 474 Consciousness 167, 196–211, 219 ‘updating’ model of 208 and unpredictability 207–8 Constraint 39–41, 78, 160–5, 166, 218, 308, 404 as an assumption of optimality theory 78, 404 of competition 77 developmental 39–41 on foraging decisions 379–81 of function on mechanism 163–5, 166 on learning 161, 301–4 life history 246 of mechanism on function 160–2, 166 nutritional 262, 379–80 perceptual 375 of predation risk 380–1 psychological 369 and social structure 406 Consummatory stimulus 193 Contest (see also Assessment) 543–55 asymmetric 546–55 symmetric 543–6 Control systems model 20–3 Convergence 37 Convict cichlid (Archocentrus nigrofaciatus) 445 Cooperation 28, 30, 448–68, 540, 604, 625–32 and the freeloader (freerider) problem 625–6 and kinship 448–59, 626–7 and information transfer 540 and manipulation 466–7 and mutualism 466 and reciprocity 459–66, 627–30 and social networks 626 Coping 213–14, 432–3 Copying error 91, 93 Cormorant 37–9 black (Phalocrocorax carbo) 37–9 Co-segregation studies 52 Cost function 183–9, 544 Cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) 202 Cottonwood poplar aphid (Pemphigus betae) 313–15 Countermarking 142 Courtship 11, 20, 24, 36, 91, 153, 174, 235, 244, 273–4, 290, 297, 486, 539 in blue gouramis 273–4 in canaries 153 in Drosophila 46–50, 235 in guppies 182–3 in lovebirds 52 in pelecaniforms 37–9 in phasianids 23–4, 36, 37, 161, 539 in smooth newts 20–3, 174 song 103 in zebra finches 297 Cowbird 79, 116, 530, 544–5 brown-headed (Molothrus ater) 115, 544–5 Crab 136, 250, 372 fiddler (Uca) 250 Podophthalmus vigil 136 Shore (Carcinus maenas) 372 Critical period (see also Imprinting) 20, 149, 296–9 form 297–8 onset and termination 299 Cross-fostering 506, 524 Cruel bind 482 Crypsis 382, 386, 388, 404, 534, 571 enhancing postures 387 Cultural evolution (see also Gene-culture coevolution and Meme) 91–2, 93, 588–602 dual inheritance model 595 mechanisms of 596 and memes 595–602 parallels with genetic evolution 589–90 Cultural ‘icon’ 591 Cultural tool 9 Cultural tradition 291, 293, 589 in blackbirds 293 in rats 291 and socially-acquired preferences in guppies 516 Culture 8–9, 91–2, 220, 588–602 definitions of 590–92 models of 592–602 Cutthroat finch (Amadina fasciata) 536 Cuttlefish 1 Damaraland mole rat (Cryptomys damarensis) 432, 435 Daphnia 380–1, 411 pulex 380–1 Darter (see Anhinga) ‘Darwinian creature’ 7–8, 9, 195 Death feigning (thanatosis) 205, 393 Deception (see also Cheating) 204, 205–7, 491, 576–7 lying 576–7 and polygyny 491 ‘tactical’ 206–7, 555 Decision-making 9, 17, 26, 31, 94, 161, 168–95, 208, 213, 214–18, 219, 248, 357–81, 404, 430, 481, 519, 527, 531 Decorated field cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) 494, 510 Deflector loft 343, 349 Demographic transition 624–5 Density-dependence 333 Delay tolerance 180–1, 198 Demonstrator/observer (teacher/pupil) experiment 290–6, 424 Depression 243 Derived species 39 Desertion 482, 483 Developmental instability 249–53, 509–10 Developmental pathway 82, 254 Dice snake (Natrix tesselata) 394 Digit (second:fourth) ratio 614 Directional asymmetry 250, 510 Discrimination (see also Learning) 205, 269, 280–4, 385, 510, 569 category 283 and matching 280–2 Dishabituation 120 Disinhibition 191–4, 272 Dispersal 17, 309, 406, 433, 479, 482 Displacement activity (see also Conflict behaviour) 192, 212 Display (see also Courtship) 22, 23, 46, 70–6, 191–2, 244, 290, 531, 533–71, 586 acoustic 508–9 and conflict behaviour 191–2 cost of 543–6 deimatic (dymantic) 393, 396, 534 distribution of persistence times 72–3, 544–6 diversionary 392–3, 555 electric 565 potentiating 569 and predictability 544–6 sky-pointing 37–9 strut 537 Display (continued) time cost of 70–6 threat 273, 398, 539, 548 warning 386 wing-fluttering 37–9 Dithering 188 Diversionary behaviour 392 Division of labour (see also Caste and Role) 426, 435 DNA fingerprinting 459 DNA repair 472 Dog, domestic (Canis familiaris) 58–61, 270 Dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) 143 Domestication 58–61 Dominance and recessiveness (see also Modifier gene) 42, 46, 61, 64, 233–4, 472, 510 Dominance boundary 185–9 rotation of 187–9 slope of 189 Dominance hierarchy (see also Social status) 66, 151, 430–3, 434 despotic 430 matrilineal 434 transitivity of 430 Dominant behaviour (motivation) 186–9, 190–5 Doppler shift 352 Down’s syndrome 51 Dragonfly (Aeshna umbrosa) 398 Dronefly (Eristalis tenax) 387 Drosophila 46–50, 62–3, 111, 236, 476 activity cycle in (see also Period gene) 48–50, 62–3 courtship in (see Courtship) courtship song in 49–50, 53 learning in 240–1 locating effects of genes in 232–5 melanogaster 46–50, 111, 232–5, 240–1 and reproductive rate 476 sexual dimorphism in 111 simulans 49–51 Drug addiction 2 Duck 23 Duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) 143 Dung beetle (Onthophagus taurus) 503 Dungfly (Scatophaga stercoraria) 28, 75–6, 317 Dunnock (Prunella modularis) 441, 490–1 Dustbathing 172, 173 Earthworm 96, 97, 101, 102, 109–10, 374–5, 420 Lumbricus terrestris 101, 109–10 Eavesdropping 143, 556, 565–8, 587 and audience effects 567–8 Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus and Zaglossus bruijnii) 143 Echinoderm 100 Ectoparasite 505 Edge detector cells 133–4 Edge effect (in social groups) 409–10, 415, 423 Egalitarian society 432 Egg-eviction response 257 Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) 145 Eider duck (Somateria mollissima) 148 Elasticity of demand 215 Electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) 144 Electric fish 143–4 strongly 144 weakly 143–4, 565 Electric organ 143 Electric ray (Torpedo) 144 Electrosensitivity 142–4 in elasmobranchs 143 in monotremes 143 and orientation 352 in weakly electric fish (gymnotids and mormyrids) 143–4 Emlen funnel 338 Emotion 108, 114, 203, 211, 243, 277 genes and 243 Empathy 114, 606 Encephalisation quotient 107 Enculturation 592 Endorphin 98 Environmental enrichment 217, 222, 260 Environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA) 603–4 Epistasis (see also Dominance and recessiveness) 42, 50, 64, 472, 606 Ethology 25–6, 31, 121, 133, 169, 189, 191, 297, 300–4, 539, 542–3, 586, 591, 592 European cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) 421, 525, 526 European frog (Rana temporaria) 487 Eusociality 87, 222, 406, 432, 435–8, 449 and haplodiploidy 87, 449 Evening grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus) 416 Evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) 28, 68–76, 93, 315–18, 357, 358, 424, 476, 531, 595 of burrowing decisions in great golden digger wasps 73–4, 420 and cultural evolution of desertion 483 and the distribution of competitors 315–18 of jaw handedness in cichlid fish 74–5 of mate-searching in dungflies 74–6 of migration 327–35 of producing and scrounging 421–2 of reciprocal cooperation 461–4 and sex ratios 476–81 of territorial competition 446 of vigilance 425 Evolutionary equilibrium (see Optimality theory) Evolutionary lag 79–81 Evolutionary psychology 29–31, 209, 603–4, 632 Expectancy 369 Experience 220, 224, 263–306, 310–11 and feeding skills 263 and song learning 263–5 Experimentation 13, 26, 31 Extended phenotype 65–6, 540 Extra-pair copulation 487, 494, 611, 618–20, 633 Eye blink 3, 271–2, 285 ‘Eye’ spots 392 False head 392 Familiar area (see Calculated migration) Family group 433–5, 449 Fanworm 109–10 Fate mapping 234–5 Fathead minnow (Pimphales pimelas) 526 Fatigue 120, 268 Fear response 53 Feedback 123, 173, 174, 497 Feedforward effect 176 Fertilisation efficiency 514, 519, 531 Field cricket 519, 565 Gryllus bimaculatus 519 Gryllus integer 565 Fifteen-spined stickleback (Spinachia spinachia) 372 Firefly (Photinus) 536 Fisher, R.

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Animal Cognition: Evolution, Behavior and Cognition

Animal Cognition: Evolution, Behavior and Cognition

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The result of expert opinions and assessments should be a list of relative pet suitabilities of mammal species, based on the combined – subjective – assessments of experts about objective scientific characteristics in relation to their environment. L. (1995) Magnetoreception and electromagnetic field effects: sensory perception of the geomagnetic field in animals and humans. However, with spatial discrimination tasks, rats acquire learning sets within 50 trials (Zeldin & Olton 1986), and fare even better in olfactory discriminations (Eichenbaum et al. 1986).

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The Mind of the Horse: An Introduction to Equine Cognition

The Mind of the Horse: An Introduction to Equine Cognition

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Keywords: Keywords: animal health, animals, animal specialty services, service, veterinarians, veterinarian Reach your career goals with the Animal Behavior Institute! Read through these April 2012 job postings to get an idea of what employers look for in animal behaviorists: A cruelty prevention organization in New York wants to hire an animal behaviorist who has at least a bachelor's degree, though a master's is preferred. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 51: 36–40. Lamarck explained instinct as inherited habit.

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The Emperor's Embrace: Reflections on Animal Families and

The Emperor's Embrace: Reflections on Animal Families and

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I. (2001) Symmetry, sexual dimorphism in facial proportions and male facial attractiveness. Closed circles indicate early evening positions, and open circles positions six hours later. The vertical variation of various plankton can be contributed to certain physical factors such as, light and temperature (recorded at Fahrenheit). If you need special consideration, please ask. In some molluscs, seasonal rhythmicity is associated with changes in the ionic status of the haemolymph and nerve cells.

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what is that alligator saying? a beginning book on animal

what is that alligator saying? a beginning book on animal

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These are awarded on a competitive basis. You can begin paying for college before you even leave high school by applying for scholarships, large or small, which may help you afford college. Ascione, Frank, Claudia Weber and David S. The birds typically feed in flocks and those in larger flocks experience a greater rate of food intake, so landing in pools where there are already lots of other birds should be a good way to rich pickings.

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The Homing Instinct: Meaning and Mystery in Animal Migration

The Homing Instinct: Meaning and Mystery in Animal Migration

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Remember that you write only one personal statement for your five choices. Organisms are generally associated with particular kinds of habitat. The African Herbivores course is designed to give students an understanding of the basic ecology and biology of common herbivores in Africa. Journal of Comparative Psychology 194: 248–54. You see, the males want to be sure that they really are the dad—they haven’t learned about paternity tests yet.

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World of Bats, The ( Photographic Study in Animal Behavior ,

World of Bats, The ( Photographic Study in Animal Behavior ,

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An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food, as a Moral Duty. Ecology 84:3349-3359. [ pdf ] Oliveira, R. Intergenerational continuity of attitudes and values about dogs. Animals in general live under conditions in which they While the hard struggle for existence may have bred long tender feelings and unselfish impulses it has produced them for the same ultimate purpose that is subserved by sharp claws and good teeth. the survival and perpetuation of the species. and when the community includes more is generally a secondary outof the domestic group.36 Studies in Animal Behavior between the simple family and the highly organized social state. as in the fostering of aphids by ants.

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The Effect of Delay and of Intervening Events on

The Effect of Delay and of Intervening Events on

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Dogs have been domesticated probably well before people could write. Offered during the spring semester of even-numbered years. Let me know if you have additional questions. I found the males arrived in numbers as great as when the object of their search lay in the of open work freely exposed on a table. memorable night the Night of the Great Peacock! However, it is possible to predict stable optimal group sizes. In the two specimens employed the first detectible turn was away from the light 27 times and towards the light After a few extensions the worm in 23 times. therefore. "If the animal turns it in the direction of a strong light it is quickly withdrawn and extended again. all cases soon turned and crawled away from nearly the light.

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