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This number of newly comissioned essays by means of overseas participants deals a consultant evaluation of an important advancements in modern philosophical logic.

•Presents controversies in philosophical implications and purposes of formal symbolic common sense.

•Surveys significant traits and gives unique insights.

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The major authors of modern philosophy and literature did not advance or even concern themselves with logic so conceived, and generally treated it with derision. John Milton thought it a subject in which “young Novices . . [are] mockt and deluded . . with ragged Notions and Babblements, while they expected worthy and delightful knowledge” (On Education).

Euclid of Megara (c. 430–c. 360 BCE), an approximate contemporary of Plato, was a member of Socrates’ circle. ” We are told that he attacked arguments “not from their premises but from their conclusions;” what this means is not clear, but one possible interpretation is that Euclid followed Zeno in attacking rival positions by showing that they led to unacceptable consequences. A small circle of followers assembled around him, and from the beginning they appear to have had a strong interest in argumentation, especially in its dialectical form, in refutations, and in logical puzzles and paradoxes.

Owing to this logical ‘picture theory’ avant la lettre for the relation between mind and world, the theory of categories, especially in the form of simple predications, or categorizations, [a is an a], is sometimes seen as part of logic (as well as of metaphysics). The medieval theories as to the truth of propositional combinations of terms – categorical predications – vary. According to one theory, the (extensional) identity theory, the proposition [S is P] is true when the supposition of both terms is the same, that is, when both terms stand for the same entity.

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