By Rachel Nordlinger, Felicity Meakins
This quantity is a grammatical description of Bilinarra, an endangered Australian language. This paintings attracts on fabrics accumulated over a 20-year interval from the final first-language audio system of the language, such a lot of whom have for the reason that passed on to the great beyond. precise recognition is paid to all points of the grammar, with all examples supplied with linked sound records.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Bilinarra: An Australian Aboriginal Language of the Northern Territory
Table 1: Present tense inﬂections in Bilinarra, Ngarinyman and Gurindji Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Bilinarra -rra -la -nga -la -na Ngarinyman -rra(ny) -la(ny) -nga(ny) -la(ny) -na(ny) Gurindji -nana -rnana -ngana -rnana -nana Table 2: Past imperfective inﬂections in Bilinarra, Ngarinyman and Gurindji Bilinarra Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 -ni-rra -rni-rra -nya-rra -rni-rra -ni-rra -ni-rra -rni-rra -nya-rra -rni-rra -ni-rra -na-ni -rna-ni -nga-ni -rna-ni -na-ni [- PST- IMPF ] Ngarinyman [- PST- IMPF ] Gurindji [- IMPF - PST ] 10 The language and its speakers The TAM categories marked by the inﬂecting verbs are the third point of diﬀerence between Bilinarra (and Ngarinyman) and Gurindji, as shown in the following tables.
The story is told in Bilinarra and Kriol. It exists as an unpublished booklet. This story won the contemporary story category of the 2005 Northern Territory Indigenous Languages Story Writing competition. garra ‘Fishing’ Story was recorded and transcribed in 2002 by Felicity Meakins with Ivy Kulngari Nangari-Nambijina† in Katherine and exists as a video and an unpublished booklet held at Mimi Ngurrdalingi Aboriginal Corporation (previously Diwurruwurru-jaru Aboriginal Corporation) in Katherine, Northern Territory.
In the 1970s, McConvell (1985a: 96) observed that the most pervasive discourse practice among Gurindji people was code-switching between diﬀerent dialects of Gurindji and Kriol. In a recording of a conversation between Gurindji stockmen who were butchering a cow in a bush paddock near Kalkaringi, McConvell (1988a: 97) found that approximately a third of the utterances were monolingual Gurindji, one third Kriol, and the remaining third involved intra-sentential codeswitching. McConvell and Meakins (2005; Meakins 2011b) claim that these codeswitching practices fossilised into a mixed language, referred to as Gurindji Kriol.