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By Do D.D.

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Additional resources for Adsorption analysis: Equilibria and kinetics

Example text

For instance, the compound NaCl is unlike the two elements that make up this molecule. Na is sodium, a very reactive metal, and Cl2 is chlorine, a reactive gas, whereas the molecule NaCl is well known as table salt. ) Based on what we have learned, let’s define elements and compounds. Atom: The smallest unit of each of the more than 100 known elements and different basic types of matter that either exist in nature or are artificially made. All atoms that compose a specific element have the same nuclear charge and the same number of electrons and protons.

Some questions still required answers before a logical organizational chart of the elements could be completed, among them how to determine the energy, position, and number of electrons in atoms of different elements. When electrons are “excited” by an input of energy, they jump to a higher energy level, orbit, or shell—that is, from a shell (energy level) that is closer to the nucleus to a higher energy level further from the positive nucleus—and then they return to their original energy level closer to the nucleus, or they are driven off the outer region of * Rutherford, Ernest.

If a shell does not have its complete quota of electrons, the atom will “bond” with other atoms by “taking in electrons” or “giving up electrons” or “sharing electrons” in order to maintain a complete outer shell, thus forming molecules. This is the essence of how atoms of elements form molecules of compounds, and it is the essence of chemical reactions. There are seven possible shells or energy levels for electrons surrounding the nucleus at a relatively great distance. The lightest atoms have only one shell, which is the innermost shell closest to the nucleus.

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