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By George F. Vande Woude (ed.), George Klein (ed.)

Presents worthy info at the intriguing and fast-moving box of melanoma research. Outstanding and unique stories are provided on quite a few issues.

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27 Recent Advances in the Research of Hepatitis B III. VIRAL FACTORS IN HBV-RELATED HCC A. Viral Load The impact of baseline viral load at enrollment on the risk of cirrhosis and HCC development over time has been increasingly recognized in HBV carriers aged between 30 and 65 years. In a population-based prospective cohort including seven townships in Taiwan, 3582 untreated HBV carriers were enrolled (REVEAL-HBV study; Fig. 3). , 2006). According to this landmark study, the higher the serum HBV DNA level at early 1990s, the higher the risk of cirrhosis and HCC development at early 2000s (Fig.

PRIMARY PREVENTION OF HBV-RELATED HCC As chronic HBV infections is a common cause of HCC, the best and costeffective strategy to prevent HBV infection is to implement universal hepatitis B vaccination (Asia-Pacific Working Party on Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, 2010). Ample evidence documents that vaccination of newborns against HBV infection in Taiwan has effectively reduced persistent HBV infections from 15% in the pre-vaccination era to < 1% in the post-vaccination era (Kao and Chen, 2008).

The outcomes of these trials in Asian and Western countries, however, were noticeably different in terms of overall survival, time to progression, and adverse events. Reasons for these differences are not fully understood, but may include differences in the severity of underlying disease, differing etiologic factors, and/or cultural differences in relation to the reporting of adverse events. The risk factors associated with the development of HCC include chronic infection with either HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (Kao and Chen, 2005), the presence of cirrhosis, carcinogen exposure especially aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), alcohol abuse, genetic factors, male gender, cigarette smoking, and advanced age (Lok, 2004).

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