Download Allozyme Electrophoresis. A Handbook for Animal Systematics by B. J. Richardson PDF

By B. J. Richardson

Inherited enzyme diversifications, studied utilizing electrophoresis, can be utilized as markers for the id of people, inhabitants constitution research, the delineation of species barriers and phytogenetic reconstruction. the aim of this booklet is to explain, in one handy guide, the entire theoretical and functional issues proper to these meaning to use electrophoresis as a device for answering such questions.

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For example a study of a genus known to be in a state of taxonomic confusion regarding the number and distribution of species may have all four aims, namely; 1) to determine how many species or genetic forms are present (species boundary determination), 2) having done so, to establish reliable genetic markers for subsequent use in the correct identification of other doubtful specimens (genetic identification), 3) to investigate the genetic relationships among geographically isolated populations of one particular species (within-population analysis), and 4) to attempt to understand the evolutionary relationships among taxa (phylogenetic reconstruction).

G. Richardson, 1983). As well as these population phenomena that need to be considered when interpreting genetic data, the results for particular loci can be affected by many other processes ranging from assortative mating through the presence of null alleles to samples in poor condition. These will be discussed in detail in Chapter 11. 4 SAMPLING STRATEGIES From these considerations the following points need to be remembered when planning sampling programmes: 1. Many polymorphic loci must be used if any confidence is to be placed in the results (to separate population-specific and locus-specific phenomena).

Where at least one of these predictions is not fulfilled, the possibility should be considered that the original 'fixed' dif­ ference observed is not under simple genetic control, or that the gels have been misinterpreted. For this reason, it is important that a minimum of two diagnostic fixed differences be used in all circumstances. , for suspecting the presence of two species in the population. In the majority of such cases electrophoresis is the tool of choice for dissecting the situation. This is because different, but closely related, species of animals typically show fixed differences, or almost fixed differences, at least for some electrophoretic loci (Ayala, 1975).

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