By Esa Saarinen (auth.), Frank Heny (eds.)
The essays during this ebook take care of a few difficulties within the research of intensional language - extra in particular with the research of the private modalities in typical language. jointly they disguise a consultant spectrum of the issues of latest ,interest during this quarter, in a manner that are meant to cause them to of curiosity to linguists, logicians and philosophers thinking about ordinary language. The members are normally extra linguists than logicians or philosophers yet a few are extra logicians or philosophers than linguists. so far as attainable, we've attempted to behavior the dialogue in phrases that would allow scholars from any of those fields to come back to grips with the significant matters. This quantity will offer, i feel, fabric for a really stimulating path. i've got used it because the foundation for a direction on the introductory point within the philosophy of language. The essays within the ebook led us again to examine the vintage texts and a great deal of the intervening literature crept in of its personal accord. Out of that have grew the advent that follows. by contrast with the remainder of the booklet, the advent is frankly pedagogical. i am hoping and think that many that could differently locate the papers themselves challenging to digest will ~e helped on their method through that summary.
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The essays during this e-book care for a couple of difficulties within the research of intensional language - extra specially with the research of the non-public modalities in common language. jointly they conceal a consultant spectrum of the issues of latest ,interest during this zone, in a fashion that are meant to cause them to of curiosity to linguists, logicians and philosophers considering usual language.
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Additional resources for Ambiguities in Intensional Contexts
Groenendijk and Stokhof also use a scope difference as the basis for their semantics. The paper by Richards, which follows, deals with a question which is raised in other forms both by Hellan and by Smith. It was suggested by the latter, in connection with beliefs involving an individuating concept, that it I INTRODUCTION was inappropriate to permit such a concept, in all its richness, to fonn the subject, itself, of the belief sentence. A proper representation of someone's belief in a sentence incorporating a fully developed individuating concept would want to employ an anaphor in the belief sentence itself, with the full individuating concept remaining outside.
He notes that a description attributed by the believer to the object may not in fact apply. Instead of placing the description outside the scope of believe we need to include it inside the scope of that operator. Thus, for this reading, which Saarinen calls the 'intermediate' reading, he proposes a move which corresponds exactly in the syntax to what we proposed as a possible move in (17). ) INTRODUCTION xxxv Notice that none of these additional readings affects pure de dicta interpretation. They characterize ways in which the object of belief may vary.
Klein himself suggests what the analogous account under his own proposal might be. He does not, as we noted earlier, reject a scope representation of de re belief in general. And if Ralph believes that the man in the brown hat is a spy is itself to be assigned a de re structure this would presumably take a standard form, with quantifying in, much as in (ISa). However, as he observes, a standard utterance of (20), backed up by a singular proposition which Ralph could (in some sense) have asserted, will mean that in addition to believing (20) Ralph will also believe that un-asserted singular proposition.