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By Giuliano Preparata

An easy advent to quantum physics with a kind of Galilean discussion at the ideally suited platforms of latest physics. the writer, whose examine pursuits and paintings prolonged from quarks to liquid platforms and from crystals to stars, introduces the typical conceptual and mathematical framework of all quantum theories, practical adequate to effectively confront nature: quantum box idea utilized to the examine of either dilute and condensed subject. within the dilute restrict, quantum mechanics is proven to be an outstanding approximation to quantum box conception. despite the fact that, in condensed subject physics the matter of the floor kingdom, which acts as a type of template for actual fact, is studied lower than the speculation that the traditional perturbative vacuum is volatile with appreciate to a brand new coherent vacuum, whose spectrum emerges particularly obviously via an easy variational technique.

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One also says that the quantum of action allows particle reactions. In fact, we will discover that all kinds of reactions in nature, including breathing, digestion, and all other chemical and nuclear reactions, are due just to the existence of the quantum of action. One type of process that is especially dear to us is growth. The quantum of action implies that all growth happens in small steps. Indeed, ⊳ All growth processes in nature are quantum processes. Above all, as mentioned already, the quantum of action explains life.

The value of Planck’s constant can be determined from measurements of black bodies or other light sources. 054 571 726(47) ⋅ 10−34 Js , Ref. 15 Challenge 30 ny a value so small that we can understand why photons go unnoticed by humans. 37 aJ. Indeed, in normal light conditions the photons are so numerous that the continuum approximation for the electromagnetic field is highly accurate. In the dark, the insensitivity of the signal processing of the human eye – in particular the slowness of the light receptors – makes photon counting impossible.

Extreme examples of this phenomenon are being investigated at present by several research groups aiming to construct light sources that emit one photon at a time, at regular time intervals, as reliably as possible. In summary, experiments force us to conclude that light is made of photons, but also that photons cannot be localized in light beams. It makes no sense to talk about the position of a photon in general; the idea makes sense only in some special situations, and then only approximately and as a statistical average.

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