By K. Strauss
Utilized technology within the Casting of Metals specializes in metallurgical operations.
The publication first discusses the manufacture of iron and metal. issues contain therapy of liquid iron and metal; therapy of molten iron among blast furnace and steelworks; and remedy of liquid metal. The textual content takes a glance at casting pit perform, together with ingot feeding, scorching topping of alloy steels, equipment of utilizing hot-tops, and hot-topping tools.
The choice specializes in spray metal making and non-stop casting of metal. the method taken with spray metal making; the elemental rules of casting of metal; and metallurgical points are mentioned. The textual content describes the therapy of forged iron; therapy of non-ferrous heavy metals; remedy of aluminum and magnesium alloys; and remedy of molding sand from molds and cores.
The publication explains the feeding of metal castings. subject matters comprise improvement of exothermic feeding; mechanisms of alumino-thermic reactions; functions of exothermics to metal castings; and floor additions.
The textual content is a useful resource of knowledge for readers attracted to metallurgical operations.
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Additional resources for Applied Science in the Casting of Metals
35. >^>•» ^^, 40. 45. 50. 55. 60. PRICE PER BILLET TON ( / ) FIG. 35. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. , Estratto dal Bolletino Tecnico Finsider, numero 233, Luglio, 1966. MUELLER, J. , and BOLE, G. , Steel, 126, 80-82 (1950). , Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 186, 396-405 (1957). DUCHATEAU, J. , Le Masselottage PROFAX, Paper given to Commission des Ingenieurs des Acieries Electriques, March 1964. 5. GODBEHERE, A. , Hot-topping steel ingots, Paper given to a meeting of the Ministry of Heavy Industry in Katowice, Poland, 1964.
When the cavities are divorced from the atmosphere their surfaces do not oxidize and, to a large extent, they weld up during hot working. Segregation associated with the lower cavities persists as an axial concentration. JH A B FIG. 4A and B. Typical sections of big-end-down and big-end-up ingots without use of feeding aids. With certain low-quality steels where inferior structures and segregation patterns can be tolerated, or where the level of segregating components is low, ingots are sometimes cast without either feeder head or anti-piping compound.
It can, however, be said that a hot-top with very good insulating properties will usually have a gross ratio of 9 to 12%. An inferior insulating head with the same wall thickness would need a larger head volume of, say, 12 to 14%. An inferior insulator with increased thickness can be anticipated to approach the thinner, better insulator in efficiency. Again the selection may be dictated by the application cost. All previous comment has referred to either mill ingots or small forging ingots. There are, in addition, many large forging ingots where heading techniques are different.