Download AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book by Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max PDF

By Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole

Fresh, up to date chemistry textual content for the recent AQA AS Chemistry specification beginning in 2008. Emphasises How technological know-how Works and is deal to follow-on from GCSE as a hugely obtainable textual content for complicated research.

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Extra info for AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book

Sample text

Cl Al Cl Cl Al Cl Cl The bonding in the aluminium chloride dimer. 03_04_AW_04 Polyatomic ions A polyatomic ion is a charged particle consisting of two or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds. The ammonium ion, NH14, is a polyatomic ion formed from an ammonia molecule and a hydrogen ion, H+. It contains four covalent bonds, and one of these is a co-ordinate bond. The ammonia molecule has a lone pair of electrons on its nitrogen atom. The hydrogen ion has a vacant orbital. This is because it is formed when a hydrogen atom loses its only electron.

Cl Group 7 and Group 3 Fluorine and chlorine are in Group 7 and both can donate a lone pair of electrons to form a co-ordinate bond. Boron and aluminium are in Group 3 and both can have vacant orbitals in their compounds. As a result, these elements are frequently involved in examination questions about co-ordinate bonding. For example, H3N→BCl3, H3N→AlCl3 and H3N→AlF3 would have identical dot and cross diagrams to H3N→BF3 (apart from the atom symbols of course). Cl Al Cl Cl Al Cl Cl The bonding in the aluminium chloride dimer.

2 What volume of ammonia will be produced if the nitrogen reacts completely? Mole ratio of ammonia to nitrogen is 2:1, so: 2 volume of ammonia = 3 100 = 200cm3 1 Molar volume The molar volume, Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of gas. It depends on the temperature and pressure, so it is important that these 64 are stated. Unless you are told otherwise, you should assume that Vm is measured at standard temperature and pressure, STP. 15 K (assumed to be 273 K at A Level). • Standard pressure is 1 3 105 Pa.

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