By Allen Parducci (auth.), J. Richard Eiser (eds.)
Despite the crucial position that the learn of attitudes has lengthy held in social psycho logical examine, the decade or so has been fairly quiet so far as the de velopment of perspective thought has been involved. If one seems again to the Yale reports on conversation and persuasion within the Nineteen Fifties, via the big literature derived from cognitive dissonance conception and its possible choices, there is a temptation to imagine that the good of researchable questions has run virtually dry. the aim of this ebook is to persuade the reader that this isn't the case. to the contrary, a brand new examine the idea that of angle bargains the possibility of as wealthy and sundry a number questions as ever sooner than. The time period "new glance" is an outdated one in social psychology. It used to be used 30 to forty years in the past because the designation for the varsity of proposal which held that "basic" mental approaches resembling conception, cognition, studying, and reminiscence should be stimulated by means of attitudes, reasons, and values. There are nonetheless classes to be realized from that interval, and the recent "new glance" that's now rising accommodates a few of these comparable topics, albeit within the context of fixing concerns and emphases.
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Finally, we conclude that solutions exist for the problems we pose, and that the variable perspective theory remains a promising approach for attitude research. Some Principles of Absolute Judgment 1. In any "absolute" judgment, the judge compares the focal stimulus to a reference set of other stimuli. 2. Any set of stimuli can be ordered Uudged) according to many different criteria, but all of the orderings are not the same. For example, attitudinal positions might be ordered according to the extent to which they favor some particular social group, the extent to which they reflect socially desirable views, the extent to which they imply idealism, or the degree of the judge's agreement with them.
According to the theory, any experimental effects upon the reference scale persist when that same scale is utilized in judging stimuli other than those that produced the experimental effects. Steele and Ostrom (1974) established differential perspectives for judgments that referred to a scenario involving a legal case. Their results showed the predicted context effects produced by manipulating the stimulus range. When the same scale was employed to judge a second legal case, the obtained results confirmed predictions based upon perspective theory that the previously established origin and unit were utilized in judging the new case.
It seems more likely that their self-avowals of happiness reflect philosophical preconceptions rather than empirical self-assessments. For example, most people may realize that experiences cannot always be positive, that they would quickly adapt to even a marked improvement in their own circumstances; at the same time, they realize how hard it would be to adapt to poorer circumstances. Simple psychophysical experiments demonstrate much more rapid adaptation to extensions than to restrictions of the range (Parducci, 1956), and people may be intuitively aware of a parallel phenomenon in their own lives.