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Parametric Polymorphism You may have noticed that in the previous chapters all the functions we have defined operate on some particular data types. However, some built-in functions like head or empty seem to be able to operate in any kind of list: [Integer], [Client], and so forth. A fair question is whether list functions are somehow treated differently by the compiler and interpreter, or do you as a developer also have the power to create such function that can operate on any type? The correct answer is the second: you could have defined the list functions by yourself with no problem.

However, the inferred type for maybeString will be shown in the corresponding message: Warning: Top-level binding with no type signature: maybeString :: forall t. Maybe t -> [Char] 48 Chapter 3 ■ reusing Code through Lists ■ Remark in the warning message you may notice that the type is prefixed by forall t. that prefix indicates explicitly that t can be instantiated to any type but otherwise adds no information. Furthermore, this kind of type signature is not allowed in haskell 2010. in the current haskell standard, you should always write the type as Maybe t -> [Char].

Alejandro". View patterns allow very clear code: specialClient specialClient specialClient specialClient :: Client -> Bool (clientName -> "Mr. Alejandro") = True (responsibility -> "Director") = True _ = False Oops! It seems that we rushed into making some sort of mistake. Notice the following interpreter error: Illegal view pattern: clientName -> "Mr. Alejandro" Use -XViewPatterns to enable view patterns This problem arises because view patterns are not part of the Haskell 2010 specification, but rather an extension made by GHC developers.

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