By Nesrin Ücarlar, n/a
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Extra resources for Between majority power and minority resistance : Kurdish linguistic rights in Turkey
This is a consumer-oriented conception of human nature, in which social and political relations can be understood only as goods instrumental to the achievement of individual desires, and not as intrinsic goods’ (Barber 1984; quoted in Young 1990: 228). In this account, human beings are conceptualised as abstract individuals independent of their social contexts and preceding the community in which they live. However, the priority of the individual is not only unattainable but also misleading if a person’s identity is constituted, in part, by his or her membership of a collectivity (Miller 1995: 100).
This hybridity may lead one to recognise and scrutinise the ambiguities, oppositions and oppressions within communities. In fact, as Bhabha displays, the idea of community in contemporary world ‘disturbs the grand globalising narrative of capital, displaces the emphasis on production in “class” collectivity, and disrupts the homogeneity of the imagined community of the nation’ (2001: 2301). He considers the community ‘the antagonist supplement of modernity: in the metropolitan space it is the territory of the minority, threatening the claims of civility; in the transnational world it becomes the border-problem of the diasporic, the migrant, the refugee’ (ibid).
The discursive analysis works on the ‘practices’ that define actions, interpretations and subjectivities operating within the discourse. Discursive practices ‘delimit the range of objects that can be identified, define the perspectives that one can legitimately regard as knowledge, and constitute certain kinds of persons as agents of knowledge’ (Foucault 1977: 199; Shapiro 1981: 130). These practices operate within the ‘primary’ (real), ‘secondary’ (reflexive) and ‘tertiary’ (discursive) relations.