Download Byzantine Naval Forces 1261-1461: The Roman Empire’s Last by Raffaele D'Amato PDF

By Raffaele D'Amato

After the recapture of Constantinople, Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos was firm to convey glory again to the Byzantine Empire. to accomplish this, he tested an Imperial Fleet and raised new regiments of elite marine troops. This paintings offers a entire, illustrated consultant to the unit historical past and visual appeal of those males, who have been on the innovative of the final nice flourish of Byzantine naval strength. They received victory after victory in campaigns through the 1260s-70s, and notwithstanding successive sessions of decline and partial resurrection undefined, those marine devices survived till the final glints of Byzantine resistance have been extinguished. Drawing upon early literary resources, the wealthy facts of interval illuminated manuscripts, frescoes and different iconography, Raffaele DAmato info the lasting legacy of the swansong of Byzantine naval strength.

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The extension of the hood can sometimes be linked with descriptions referring to the employment of a gorget (peritrachelion) to protect the throat, of either mail or plate. ) Iron ‘war-hat’ helmet dated to 1222, from Saranda Kolones castle at Paphos, Cyprus; its shape is distorted by later earthquake damage to the building in which it was held. (Courtesy District Archaeological Museum, Paphos; author’s photo) Eastern Roman helmet with ringmail aventail, 13th–14th centuries. (Private collection; photo courtesy TimeLine Auctions) Body armour The instructions for warriors of Theodore Palaiologos, written in 1326, prescribe the pourpoint, the hauberjon and the cuiriee, sometimes worn with a gambeson, and these typical Western protections are also visible in the iconography.

Indd 47 Detail of helmets from an early 14th-century fresco of the guards sleeping at the Holy Sepulchre; the right-hand example bears a Chinese inscription, so is almost certainly of Mongol origin – see Plate D4. (in situ Church of St John Chrisostomos, Geraki, Lakonia; author’s photo) – and the captive kneeling at his feet – wear differing armours described in the sources for Romans and Latins alike; both are based on Western styles, but with local modifications. In this case the Byzantine elements are most noticeable: a basic design resembling in construction a 14th-century coat-ofplates, such as those from the Visby graves, is married with shoulder caps, hanging leather defences at upper arms and abdomen, and one-piece metal greaves.

Others, shaped like Western chapels-de-fer (1) were Heads of 13th-century poleaxes; see Plate A1. (Courtesy Kazanlik Museum, Bulgaria; called in Greek kranoi or kukla. The author’s photo) sources also show linothorakes similar to Western European ‘soft A: SECOND HALF OF 13th CENTURY armours’ or surcoats (2), and leg protection (sidera gonatia) A1: Gasmoulos like Western ringmail chausses (1). As well as ringmail, scale From folio 105v of the Histoire Universelle, and the sources armour (3), and coats-of-plates (1), sources also seem to describing these seafaring light infantry as being of mixed show so-called ‘banded mail’ (2).

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