Download Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry, 3rd edition by Bryan Earl PDF

By Bryan Earl

Recommended via Cambridge foreign Examinations The bestselling identify, constructed by means of foreign specialists - now up-to-date to provide finished assurance of the center and prolonged subject matters within the newest syllabus. - contains a student's CD-ROM that includes interactive checks and perform for all exam papers - Covers the center and complement sections of the up to date syllabus - Supported through the main finished variety of extra fabric, together with instructor assets, Laboratory Books, perform Books and Revision publications - Written through well known, specialist authors with substantial event of training and studying overseas skills

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Extra info for Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry, 3rd edition

Sample text

The electronic structures of the two elements are: 8O 2,6 1H 1 The oxygen atom needs two electrons to gain the electron configuration of neon.

When an ethanol and water mixture is heated the vapours of ethanol and water boil off at different temperatures and can be condensed and collected separately. Ethanol boils at 78 °C whereas water boils at 100 °C. When the mixture is heated the vapour produced is mainly ethanol with some steam. Because water has the higher boiling point of the two, it condenses out from the mixture with ethanol. This is what takes place in the fractionating column. The water condenses and drips back into the flask while the ethanol vapour moves up the column and into the condenser, where it condenses into liquid ethanol and is collected in the receiving flask as the distillate.

If left to stand, foams like this one collapse as the tiny bubbles join together to form bigger bubbles which then escape. It is possible to form solid foams where the gases are trapped in a solid structure. 38). Emulsions are mixtures of liquids which are immiscible. Earlier in this chapter you found out that when two liquids are immiscible they do not mix but form two different layers. Oil and water are like this but if you shake the mixture it becomes cloudy. The apparent mixing that you see is due to the fact that one of the liquids has been broken into tiny droplets which float suspended in the other liquid.

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