By R. L. M. Allen (auth.)
Students embarking upon a color chemistry direction often technique it when it comes to a basic advent and continue to extra particular remedy of the topic after they have obtained a few wisdom of its personality and scope. This publication has been written with the twofold goal of serving as a advisor to such scholars in the course of the introductory a part of their path and of offering the desires during this box of others whose major curiosity is in a similar department of know-how or natural chemistry. An try has been made to provide the most good points of the topic in an simply assimilable shape. the good quantity of released details renders the alternative of fabric for a quick e-book a bit tough, and i'm keenly aware of issues that will be concept necessary of extra vast therapy. in spite of the fact that, a concise account can't be finished, and recommendations for additional analyzing are supplied on the finish of the e-book. The chemistry of colouring issues might be considered as a department of natural chemistry, however the improvement of information during this box has a path made up our minds mainly via the functions of dyes and pigments. It has hence seemed acceptable to regard the topic right here as a department of technology.
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Extra info for Colour Chemistry
A disazo dye of a different type was prepared two years later by Wallach, who coupled one molecule of diazotised crude xylidine and one molecule of diazotised sulphanilic acid with resorcinol. This dye was called Resorcin Brown, and it is still used for application to leather. The dyes manufactured up to 1884 were applied to wool or silk from weakly acid baths, but cotton could be dyed only after preliminary treatment with a mordant. The fibre was treated in a bath of tannic acid solution, then with a solution of tartar emetic so that antimony tannate was precipitated within the fibre; this compound reacted with basic dyes such as Bismarck Brown or Chrysoidine applied later to form insoluble coloured lakes, and the fibre so dyed showed some resistance to washing.
A energy content of cis. B energy content of trans. El activation energy of cis -- trans conversion. E2 activation energy of trans -- cis conversion. Sec. 3-2 3-2 Tautomerism in hydroxyazo and aminoazo compounds 25 Tautomerism in hydroxyazo and aminoazo compounds In 1884, Zincke7 showed that the product of coupling diazobenzene chloride with IX-naphthol is indistinguishable from that obtained by condensing 1,4-naphthoquinone with phenylhydrazine. The presence of both hydroxyl and keto groups has been established, and the two forms  and  are in equilibrium in the products of each reaction.
4 4-1-1 Acid dyes Since the bonds between dye anions and amino groups in the wool fibre are easily broken and re-formed, dyes attached in this way are liable to migrate. This property is advantageous, in that level dyeing is readily attained, but it leads to low fastness to wet treatments, and any undyed wool present during washing becomes stained. These characteristics are chiefly apparent in dyes of low molecular weight, and fastness to washing is in general much better in more complex dyes. The larger dye molecules are evidently attached to the fibre by some means other than the ionic bonds mentioned above, and it is believed that they are held by non-polar van der Waals forces exerted between hydrophobic dye anions and hydrophobic regions of the wool fibre, their strength being proportional to the area of contact.