By Reinhard Wilhelm, Helmut Seidl
Whereas compilers for high-level programming languages are huge advanced software program structures, they've got specific features that differentiate them from different software program platforms. Their performance is nearly thoroughly well-defined – preferably there exist entire particular descriptions of the resource and aim languages, whereas extra descriptions of the interfaces to the working procedure, programming procedure and programming setting, and to different compilers and libraries are usually to be had. The implementation of program platforms at once in desktop language is either tricky and error-prone, resulting in courses that develop into out of date as speedy because the pcs for which they have been built. With the advance of higher-level machine-independent programming languages got here the necessity to provide compilers that have been in a position to translate courses into laptop language. Given this easy problem, the several subtasks of compilation were the topic of extensive study because the Fifties. This e-book isn't really meant to be a cookbook for compilers, in its place the authors' presentation displays the distinct features of compiler layout, specially the life of distinct requirements of the subtasks. They make investments attempt to appreciate those accurately and to supply sufficient suggestions for his or her systematic therapy. this is often the 1st booklet in a multivolume set, and the following the authors describe what a compiler does, i.e., what correspondence it establishes among a resource and a objective software. to accomplish this the authors specify an appropriate digital desktop (abstract desktop) and precisely describe the compilation of courses of every resource language into the language of the linked digital laptop for an relevant, sensible, common sense and object-oriented programming language. This booklet is meant for college kids of laptop technology. wisdom of no less than one crucial programming language is believed, whereas for the chapters at the translation of useful and good judgment programming languages it might be useful to grasp a contemporary practical language and Prolog. The ebook is supported all through with examples, routines and application fragments.
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Additional info for Compiler Design: Virtual Machines
Unconditional jumps redirect program execution to a fixed given location. Conditional jumps perform the jump only if a certain condition is satisfied. In our case, this condition is satisfied if the top element of the stack equals 0 (Fig. 12). Instead of absolute instruction addresses as in our definition, relative addresses could jump A A PC PC PC ← A; 1 jumpz A PC 0 PC jumpz A A PC PC if ( S[ SP] = 0) PC ← A; SP−−; Fig. 12. The jump instructions jump and jumpz A alternatively be used as jump targets.
Fig. 13. Code generation for one-sided conditional statements tion e is evaluated to 0, program execution immediately continues after the code for statement s. Otherwise, if the condition e evaluates to a value different from 0, the instruction sequence for the statement s is executed. We use the same strategy for the code generation for a two-sided conditional statement s of the form if (e) s1 else s2 : the code sequences for e, s1 and s2 are consecutively placed in the program memory. In between suitable jumps are inserted to guarantee a correct control flow (Fig.
Since SP has the value 0 before program execution, SP must be incremented by k. When executing the instruction call, a total of 3 further memory cells have been allocated on the stack. Accordingly, the instruction enter at program start must set the register EP to SP + k + 3 = k + 3. The return value of the initial call to main is placed in the memory location with address k. The instruction halt, which is supposed to return control to the operating system, does not know about globals and therefore expects the return value in a specific memory location, say with address 1.