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By Michael Hampe

Was once will die Philosophie? Michael Hampe stellt fest: Sie will belehren und erziehen. Zu diesem Zweck stellt sie Behauptungen auf. Aristoteles behauptet, dass die Welt ewig ist, Thomas von Aquin, dass sie geschaffen wurde. Descartes behauptet, dass es zwei, Spinoza, dass es nur eine Substanz gibt. Und so weiter. Doch used to be ist das eigentlich für ein Vorhaben – andere belehren? Und hat nicht schon Sokrates dieses Projekt in Frage gestellt? Hampe untersucht das komplizierte Verhältnis von Philosophie, Erziehung und Erzählung und entwickelt eine sokratisch inspirierte Kritik philosophischer Lehren. Behaupten ist ihm zufolge nur dann ein sinnvolles Projekt, wenn guy erklären kann. Erklären ist aber etwas anderes, als Gefolgschaft zu Behauptungen zu organisieren. Es heißt, zu erzählen: von Prozessen der Selbsterkenntnis – von den Leben derer, denen etwas einleuchtet. In diesem Sinne sind Sophokles und Proust Philosophen. Und erziehen heißt nicht, Menschen dazu zu bringen, Neues über die Welt zu behaupten, sondern dazu, von ihr zu berichten, die Verhältnisse auf ihr zu kritisieren. Das wusste schon John Dewey. Die Lehren der Philosophie ist Einführung, Kritik und Utopie in einem. Hampe zeigt, wie und warum die Philosophie zu dem geworden ist, used to be sie heute ist: ein akademisches Karriereprogramm, ein zahnloser Tiger im Dschungel der Welt. Und was once sie (wieder) sein könnte, wenn sie sich von ihrem doktrinären Anspruch verabschieden würde: ein besonderer Ort des Nachdenkens über das menschliche Leben.

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Extra resources for Die Lehren der Philosophie: Eine Kritik

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Thus at one point or another the characteristic of unilateral removal crops up again even when the modem age is supposed to he legitimized precisely as the product of secularization. The progress that is exposed as fate would then be the late (and in itself not illegitimate)consequence of an earlier illegitimacy, of the infringement of the right that nature has over man and that in antiquity was left to it and confirmed by a land of thinking that for Karl Lowith would bear the imprint above all of the Stoa.

The idea of ownership of what one has originally produced, thought, and created is a modem idea. Even the justification of divine right by the Creation is not so selfevident as it seems to those who derive 'natural-law' conclusions from it. And one must also consider the fact that theology itself cannot in the strict sense claim authorship of its contents, to the extent that it traces these back to an act of 'bestowal' by revelation. On the other hand, the whole complex of secularizationwould never have contracted the odium of the violation of another's rights were it not for the (either open or secret) adoption of the premise that here something had entered the stream of history, from a unique, single, and unsurpassable source, that would otherwise have been witheld from that stream.

The continuity of history across the epochal threshold lies not in the permanence of ideal substances but rather in the inheritance of problems, which obliges the heir, in his turn, to know again what was known once before. Every attempt at resignation with respect to the unknowable then meets with the reproach of being 'positivist,' or whatever other catchword for that reproach may be convenient at the moment. Thus, as we know, the modem age found it impossible to decline to answer questions about the totality of history.

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