By P M Holt
Early Mamluk international relations is predicated on treaties among the Mamluk sultans of Egypt, Baybars (1260-77) and Qalawun (1279-90), and Christian rulers. the final advent describes the Arabic literary resources during which those treaties were transmitted. Their prestige below Islamic legislations is tested, by means of an outline of negotiation tactics, and an account of diplomatic relatives with the Christian powers. 3 treaties are with the army orders, 4 with Beirut, Tripoli, the Latin nation and Tyre, and 4 others with Lesser Armenia, Aragon, the Byzantine Empire and Genoa. each one part has an creation giving its historic historical past. The paintings bargains Islamic historians and eu medievalists documentary proof of a type infrequent in pre-modern center japanese background, casting gentle on advertisement and social in addition to diplomatic relatives.
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Additional resources for Early Mamluk Diplomacy: Treaties of Baybars and Qalawun With Christian Rulers
Any peasants entering with their beasts, or Turcomans, Arabs, Kurds or others, or the proprietors, shall be liable to herd-tax at the current rate; half shall go to the Sultan, half to the Order of the Hospital. Provided also that al-Malik al-Zähir shall protect the said condominia from all his soldiery and followers, and from all under his jurisdiction and obedience, and from all Muslims entirely who enter his obedience. e. "so-and-so". The Master of the Order of the Hospital at this time was Hugh Revel.
12] It is confirmed that all the common goods11 of both parties shall be released from the private property in the province of Himş so that the destitute may obtain subsistence from them. The representatives of al-Malik al-Zähir shall protect them [sc. the destitute] from harm by the Muslims from his said territory, and the representatives of the Order of the Hospital shall keep, guard and protect them from the Christians and Franks of all the territory covered by this truce. None of the Muslims of the territory covered by [this] truce shall harm or raid [the territory of the Hospitallers]; none of the Franks of the territory covered by this truce with its boundaries as currently held by the representatives of the Hospital and in their possession shall harm or raid the territory of al-Malik al-Zähir.
Likewise for the fisheries on the west bank of the Orontes, half of it shall go to al-Malik al-Zähir and half to the Order of the Hospital. The Order of the Hospital shall receive annually 50 Tyrian dinars in lieu of straw; the whole of the straw shall go to al-Malik al-Zähir, to be disposed of by his representatives as they choose. AlLaynüfar shall be a condominium: half of it to al-Malik al-Zähir and half to the Order of the Hospital. And it is confirmed that the new mill,10 recognized as having been set up by the Order of the Hospital, in which the fighting occurred, and the orchard there, also recognized as having been set up by the Order of the Hospital, shall be a condominium.