By Gennady Zaikov, Lomakin
The detrimental environmental effect of a few commercial flame retardants containing halogens, heavy metals, and so on. has kindled the research into new possibilities of polymer flame retardation with a purpose to ecological safeguard. This new name bargains with the ecological facets of polymer flame retardation. The ebook opens with an advent, describing the ecological obstacle of flame retardation functions. this is often by means of a few common thoughts of polymer combustion. next chapters take care of crucial equipment for estimating polymer flammability, the mode of motion of contemporary flame retardants, ecological matters of the main used halogenated flame retardants. the ultimate bankruptcy includes feedback for and reports of recent, ecologically pleasant varieties of flame retardants, corresponding to low melting glass platforms, polymer nanocomposites, polymer blends, natural char formers, and silicon-inorganic platforms.
desk of Contents
1. a few thoughts of Polymer Combustion
2. normal equipment for trying out of Polymer fabrics Flammability
three. Polymer Flame Retardants
five. New sorts of Ecologically pleasant Flame Retardants
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Extra resources for Ecological Aspects of Polymer Flame Retardancy
Time plots. They are then used to determine the preliminary analytical toxic potency (LC,) by using N-gas model equations, where toxic potency is calculated as an additive function of the toxic potencies of the individual gases. Unfortunately, the standard only addresses pre-flashover fire situations, and does not explain that values separated by less than a factor of three are statistically indistinguishable. ASTM has issued a novel test method: the cone corrosimeter (ASTM D5485) . In it the cone calorimeter is used to bum small samples of materials or products, and an aliquot of the resulting smoke is passed through an exposure chamber where copper circuit boards are exposed for 1 h.
Modification of the polymer to favor the decomposition and combustion reactions producing gases which are non-combustible, or heavy enough to interfere with normal interchange of combustion gases and combustion air. Phosphorus is introduced into polyurethane polymers in the form of phosphonate, phosphate, and phosphite polyols. Halogens are introduced into polyester 27 Chapter 3 polymers in the form of halogenated anhydrides such as chlorendic anhydride and tetrabromophthalic anhydride, into epoxy polymers in the form of halogenated compounds such as tetrabromobisphenol-A, and into polyolefins in the form of chlorinated paraffins and olefins.
The method is suitable as a quality control tool, during manufacturing, and as a semi-qualitative indicator of the effectiveness of additives, during research and development. The relevance of this test to real fires has been questioned (the test measures the trend of an extinction limit of a material only under the specific conditions tested), but many chemists have long been using this test since the required equipment is inexpensive and only a small sample size is required. Problems caused by melting and dependence of the results on the sample thickness and geometrical configuration were reported for this test .