By R W Gurney
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Additional info for Elementary Quantum Mechanics.
222). This was just the sort of approach that Einstein et al. took in the EPR paper. The EPR argument involves a locality condition that differs only slightly from the following, which Einstein referred to as the principle of local action, previously mentioned here in its more general form (cf. , p. 234). Einstein locality: The real, physical state of one system is not immediately influenced by the kinds of measurements directly made on a second system, which is sufficiently spatially separated from the first.
24) (as well as all inequalities resulting from permutations of the above indices), where p1 and p3 are the probabilities that the first system spin is found along the first of the four directions fa; b; c; d g and the second system state is found along the third direction; pij stands for the joint probability of finding the first system state along the direction i and the second system state along direction j , 1 Ä i; j Ä 4. The states can be considered those of generic quantum two-level systems in a space isomorphic to that of the EPRB scenario.
The locality criterion relates to causation and echoes Max Planck, who identified it with determinism, in that, in 1932, he had proposed to define causation as a “lawful connection in the temporal course of events”  while “[a]n event is causally determined when it can be predicted with certainty” , which is consistent with Laplacian determinism, discussed below. The EPR reality criterion will also select for situations consistent with state determination under this view. 46 The EPR argument has therefore been construed as an argument that a hidden variables theory, of the sort discussed below, is needed to provide an explanation of the correlations .