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523–5. For the lunar mansions, cf. ‘Manazil’ in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, VI, pp. 374–6. 5 In particular Sinan b. Thabit b. Qurra (d. 331 AH (943 AD)) reproduced part of the second book of Phaseis in his Kitab al-Anwa’; see Neugebauer (1971). 6 For a short and precise description of the geometrical planetary models proposed by Ptolemy in the Almagest, see Neugebauer (1957: appendix I, French translation, pp. 239–55). 7 See Ptolemy, Planetary Hypotheses. I have personally undertaken the edition of the Arabic version of this text (Morelon 1993).

137–8; vol. 1, pp. 91 and 272. 21 See Eisler (1949), ‘The polar sighting tube’. These ‘observation tubes’ are not mentioned explicitly in any of the texts of Hellenistic astronomy that have come down to us, but they have been known in China since the sixth century; see Needham and Wang Ling (1959:332–4). 22 Al-Biruni, Al-Qanun, p. 964, treatise 8, chapter 14, 2nd section. 23 See Eisler (1949), ‘The polar sighting tube’. 24 See al-Sufi, Kitab suwar al-kawakib. 25 See Ibn Yunus, Le Livre. 26 Arabic text edited and translated into German with notes by Wiedemann-Juynboll.

850) and is also called 22 EASTERN ARABIC ASTRONOMY Indian Astronomical Table (Zij al-Sindhind); it is in keeping with the preceding tradition but with the addition of elements from Ptolemaic astronomy. The Arabic text is lost and the work has been transmitted through a Latin translation made in the twelfth century by Adelard of Bath from a revision made in Andalusia by al-Majriti (d. 5 Al-Khwarizmi is equally renowned as a mathematician for his work in algebra. His treatise on astronomy was written under al-Ma’mun (813–33) and does not include any theoretical elements: it is a set of tables concerning the movements of the sun, the moon and the five known planets, introduced by an explanation of its practical use.

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