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By Shelby T. McCloy

The eighteenth century, age of France's management in Western civilization, was once additionally the main flourishing interval of French creative genius. more often than not obscured by way of England's nice business improvement are the contributions France made within the invention of the balloon, paper-making machines, the steamboat, the semaphore telegraph, fuel illumination, the silk loom, the threshing computer, the fountain pen, or even the typical graphite pencil. Shelby T. McCloy believes that those and plenty of different innovations that have enormously stimulated technological development made prerevolutionary France the rival, if no longer the chief, of England.

In his booklet McCloy analyzes the criteria that ended in France's creative task within the eighteenth century. He additionally advances purposes for France's failure to learn from her creative prowess at a time while England's innovations have been being positioned to speedy and functional use.

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38 EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRENCH INVENTIONS second truck Cugnot made further tests with the first model, and it is related that in November, 1770, it carried a load of two and a half tons (a cannon base) and traveled at the rate of three and an eighth miles an hour. Rugged terrain offered no impediment to it. 26 The second, larger truck was completed in July, 1771, at a cost to the government of 20,000 livres. Unfortunately Choiseul had fallen from power in 1770, and his successor showed no interest in the new invention.

Bernoulli won. " Gautier, 8 whose Ballot, Machinisme, 390 n. 1. Apparently it was this mechanism to which the boatmen objected and which they damaged in their attack. 6 Figuier, Merveilles, I, 163. Some ancient Roman coins show Roman warships moved by three pairs of oxen. 7 Machines et inventions approuvees par l' Academie royale des Sciences, depuis son etablissement iusqu' a present: avec leur description, ed. , Paris, 1735-1777), VI, 37-44. 4 5 8 Eric Hodgins and F. , 1932), 173; Figuier, Merveilles, I, 152-53.

40 EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRENCH INVENTIONS tion of Napoleon to his condition, and Cugnot was given a pension of 1,000 livres until his death. 33 He was the author of three treatises on military engineering, but it is the steam truck that has immortalized his name. Even before Cugnot's death ( 1804) the British were performing wonders with his invention. William Murdock, Scottish assistant to James Watt, was inspired to pursue Cugnot's idea further and constructed a model steam cart ( 1784) fifteen inches high, which ran successfully on British roads at six to eight miles per hour.

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