By Rachel Giora
During this quantity, Rachel Giora explores how the salient meanings of words--the meanings that stand out as so much favorite and available in our minds--shape how we predict and the way we communicate. For Giora, salient meanings reveal fascinating results in either figurative and literal language. In either domain names, audio system and writers creatively take advantage of the probabilities inherent within the undeniable fact that, whereas phrases have a number of meanings, a few meanings are extra obtainable than others. Of some of the meanings we encode in our psychological lexicon for a given note or expression, we ascribe better cognitive precedence to a couple over others. curiously, the main salient which means isn't constantly the literal that means. Giora argues that it's cognitively widespread salient meanings, instead of literal meanings, that play crucial function within the comprehension and construction of language. She exhibits that although context starts off to impact comprehension instantly, it does so with out obstructing the early gaining access to of salient meanings. therefore, the that means we first attend to is the salient notice that means, despite contextual bias. wisdom of salient meanings seems to play a massive position, might be an important function, within the strategy of utilizing and realizing of language. Going past the widely used results of literal which means and context, the Graded Salience speculation provides the main accomplished reason for how we use language for which means. during this quantity, Giora offers her new version for the 1st time in a book-length remedy, with unique and illuminating views that might be of curiosity to linguists, philosophers, psychologists, and all who need to know extra approximately simply how we comprehend what we suggest.
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During this quantity, Rachel Giora explores how the salient meanings of words--the meanings that stand out as such a lot well-liked and obtainable in our minds--shape how we predict and the way we converse. For Giora, salient meanings demonstrate fascinating results in either figurative and literal language. In either domain names, audio system and writers creatively take advantage of the chances inherent within the indisputable fact that, whereas phrases have a number of meanings, a few meanings are extra obtainable than others.
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Extra info for On Our Mind: Salience, Context, and Figurative Language, 2003
Thus, context may suppress a contextually inappropriate meaning so that only the appropriate meaning would be retained for further processes (Fodor, 1983; Swinney, 1979), or it may maintain them both, depending on their function in constructing the intended meaning (Giora & Fein, 1999a,b,c; Williams, 1992; chapters 4–5 in this volume). While context postlexical effects are widely acknowledged, exactly how contextual information constrains initial access of lexical information has been an important topic of research since the 1970s.
We also used completion of word fragments out of context to measure salience out of context (Giora & Fein, 1999c; chapters 4–5 in this volume). In word fragment completion tests, participants are asked to complete a fragmented word (b-tt-r) with the ﬁrst word that comes to mind (better, bitter, butter). In addition, reaction times to probes related to the various meanings of the homonym9 can also be collected out of context or in a neutral context. For instance, Williams (1992) measured response times to the various meanings (‘strict’, ‘solid’) of a polysemous word ( ﬁrm) in the context of that word only.
For instance, familiar metaphorical phrases/ sentences have been shown to be accessed initially both literally and metaphorically (Williams, 1992)8 and avail both meanings in metaphorically as well as in literally biasing contexts (Giora & Fein, 1999c). Similarly, familiar ironic utterances (Tell me about it) were shown to be accessed initially both literally and ironically in the ironically as well as in the literally biasing contexts (Giora & Fein, 1999a), suggesting that their phrasal salient meanings were activated regardless of contextual information.