By Arista M. Cirtautas
This e-book offers a groundbreaking research of democratization in Poland through putting cohesion within the context of the main democratic upheavals of modernity: the French and American Revolutions. This learn undertakes the 1st complete ancient comparability of the Polish stream with the beliefs and associations of democracy completed within the final 3 centuries.
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Additional resources for Polish Solidarity Movement: Revolution, Democracy and Natural Rights (Routledge Studies of Societies in Transition)
The central conflict in the history of natural law has revolved around the issue of how to determine who is capable of reason and, therefore, able to partake of life in the public community. During the Greek and Roman periods the public community was defined largely in political terms, and membership in that community meant having an equal say in the political 34 The charismatic presentation of natural rights affairs of the city or empire. Yet only those who were born into a certain station in life could lay claim to reason, and thereby to political membership.
But why natural law? Why not some other form of value-rationality? 42 First, natural law in its long history has managed to sustain, both philosophically and institutionally, two essentially democratic principles, namely the rights of personal autonomy and of equality. Second, the fact that natural law is inherently contradictory has left it open to continuous redefinition. Therefore, no order or hierarchy of power could sustain a lasting monopoly on the correct interpretation of natural law. Oppositional groups or individuals could always claim a more correct interpretation of the law.
Secondly, that civil power, properly considered as such, is made up of the aggregate of that class of the natural rights of man, which becomes defective in the individual in point of power, and answers not his purpose, but when collected to a focus, becomes competent to the purpose of every one. 11 Subsequently, Paine applied these principles to the formation of governments: In casting our eyes over the world, it is extremely easy to distinguish the governments which have arisen out of society, or out of the social compact, from those which have not: but to place this in a clearer light than what a single glance may afford, it will be proper to take a review of the several sources from which the governments have arisen, and on which they may be founded.