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By Asa Lundgren

Asa Lundgren explores Turkish coverage in the direction of northern Iraq from the start of the Nineteen Nineties to the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 and attracts vital conclusions concerning the relation among nation-building and international coverage. the writer argues that there's a an important interaction among the safety of kingdom borders, international coverage perform and the development of nationwide id. Turkey's coverage in the direction of northern Iraq over the last decade might be defined as a balancing act the place the integrity of the Turkish-Iraqi border used to be firmly defended by means of Ankara, whereas while it used to be continually violated via Turkish army incursions opposed to a perceived Kurdish hazard and through the everlasting army presence of the Turkish military on Iraqi territory. The paradoxes of Turkey's coverage can in simple terms be understood within the gentle of an ongoing fight over the definition of Turkish nationwide id. The author's hugely unique proposition is that Ankara's coverage competition to all makes an attempt to damage up Iraq alongside ethnic traces used to be a replicate photo of a priority with the solidarity of the Turkish country nation.

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Sample text

Half a dozen of Dersim's tribes decided to put up resistance. The uprising was, hke all the previous ones, unsuccessful. In 1937, the leaders of the rebellion were executed. That was, however not the end of the 'cleansing' of Dersim. The following year, another military operation took place in order to impose state authority once and for all. ~ Dersim, no more to move to other parts of the ~ o u n t r yAfter rebelhons followed. By the late 1930s, it looked as if the state had managed to crush all resistance and establish its presence on the entire territory.

Moreover, to promote a dominant role for Turks was not a viable way to create unity and solidarity in a multi-ethnic, multi-religious state. ~'As an ideology, Ottomanism excluded neither non-Turks nor non-Moslems, so it had the potential, at least theoretically, to bridge ethnic and religious hfferences. The CUP hoped to unite all citizens of the Empire behmd the principles of equality and constitutional rule. But even though Ottomanism was the official ideology of the Young Turks, they were first and foremost pragmatic and would employ Turhst, Ottomanist and Pan-Islamist policies, often simultaneously, in order to fulfill the goal of saving the Empire.

T o argue for the separation of any part of the country is a crime in ~ u r k e y . 'The sanctity of the territory is beyond lscussion. So, according to the official lscourse, is the sanctity of other state's territories. The Foreign Ministry repeatedly states that respect for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of neighbouring states is one of the main pdlars of Turhsh foreign policy. A former president of the constitutional court declared in a speech that 'The Turhsh Republic [.

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